More than 70 people were killed in the February 1 violence, which was the world's worst soccer-related bloodshed in 15 years.
Those charged on March 15 include nine police officers and three officials of the Al-Masry soccer club, which was the host of the match.
The rioting began minutes after the final whistle in a game between the Cairo club Al-Ahly and Al-Masry, as Al-Masry fans invaded the field and attacked Al-Ahly supporters.
Witnesses have said police did little to halt the violence.
A prosecutor statement said the violence was planned in advance, and that the perpetrators armed themselves with knives and explosives.