Kosovar Serb officials say 99 percent of voters in a two-day referendum had voted "no" to recognizing Pristina's government.
Leaders from the European Union and even Serbia had urged Kosovo's Serbs not to go ahead with the symbolic referendum.
Serbian President Boris Tadic said the vote would "not contribute to dialogue" between Belgrade and Pristina.
Serbia is seeking EU membership, and Brussels wants Belgrade to normalize relations with Pristina. The two sides started talks 11 months ago.
The commander of NATO peacekeepers in Kosovo, General Erhard Drews, said the referendum could stoke violence by extremist Albanians.
Kosovo declared independence from Serbia four years ago.
It has been recognized by most Western nations, but Belgrade and Kosovar Serbs refuse to do so.
Some 40,000 Serbs live in enclaves in northern Kosovo.
Compiled from agency reports